37. Courses and Programs: General Regulations and Course and Program Changes

Note from the University Secretariat: The Post-Secondary Learning Act gives General Faculties Council (GFC) responsibility, subject to the authority of the Board of Governors, over "programs of study" for any "degree or diploma" (section 26(1)(b) and (c)) and also over the "granting and conferring of degrees other than honorary degrees" (section 26(1)(f)). GFC has thus enacted policies concerning Course and Program Changes, as set out below.

The complete wording of the section(s) of the Post-Secondary Learning Act, as referred to above, and any other related sections, should be checked in any instance where formal jurisdiction or delegation needs to be determined.

37.1 Approval of New Courses; Challenging Procedures; Changes to Existing Programs; Discontinuance of Service Courses

A. Submission of Course Change Proposals and Circulation by Secretary to GFC

All course changes, including the provision or discontinuance of service courses offered by one Faculty to another, shall be submitted in the first instance to the Faculty Councils for approval.

Course changes shall be forwarded to the Secretary to GFC from the Faculty Councils.

All program changes, and any course changes which affect the nature or course-sequencing of a student's program, will normally take effect in the academic year following their approval (i.e., the year the information is published in the Calendar). Exceptions may be made jointly by the Offices of the Vice-President (Academic) and the Registrar.

The Secretary shall keep a circulation list of Deans, Department Chairs and other interested parties to whom the course changes will automatically be sent. In accordance with the circulation list, the Secretary to GFC shall circulate once per month, during the first week of each month, all course changes received and they will be subject to challenge.

Note from the University Secretariat: On an annual basis, The Office of the Registrar and Student Awards will circulate internally (i.e., to the Registrar's Office), for information, a listing of courses for which approval has been granted by either the Provost or the Board of Governors to assess additional instructional support (miscellaneous), cost recovery, or alternative delivery fees.

The text that will be added to the course descriptions that require payment of additional instructional support fees is as follows:

?Course requires payment of additional instructional support fees (see Student Instructional Support Fees Policy in UAPPOL).?

The text that will be added to the course descriptions for alternate delivery or cost recovery courses is as follows:

?May contain {alternative delivery/cost recovery} sections; refer to the Fees Payment Guide in the University Regulations and Information for Students section of the Calendar.?

B. Challenges of Course Proposals

General Faculties Council policy regarding course change procedures is so interpreted that the following shall be circulated and subject to challenge:

a. offering of new courses

b. dropping of existing courses

c. changes to the content of existing courses which alter the nature of the course

d. changes in prerequisites, options and weights.

Challenges which can not be resolved between the Faculties concerned shall be reported to the Secretary to GFC within two weeks of circulation. Challenges may emanate from any person.

Upon receiving notice of challenge, the Secretary to GFC, having ascertained that attempts to resolve the difficulty have been made both at Departmental and Faculty level, shall notify immediately the Dean and/or Department Chair concerned and have the challenge placed before the Executive Committee of General Faculties Council for final resolution.

In those cases where the Executive Committee is of the opinion that a policy issue is involved, it will place the issue before General Faculties Council. Course challenges can only be made with respect to individual courses and must be accompanied by reasons relating to the specific course in question.

The Executive Committee shall decide whether a challenge is frivolous and an appeal from such a decision shall lie to General Faculties Council.

C. Automatic Approval Date for Course Proposals

Faculties may assume that their course changes have been finally approved if no notice of challenge is received from the Secretary to GFC by the expiry of the third week after circulation.

D. Deletion of a Service Course

The Secretary to General Faculties Council shall be informed of all withdrawals of service courses* in order that a record may be kept.

If agreement is reached between a servicing and a serviced Faculty on a proposed withdrawal of a service course, then approval need not be sought from General Faculties Council nor from the Executive Committee.

If agreement cannot be reached between the servicing and serviced Faculty on a proposed withdrawal of a service course, the matter should be referred to the GFC Executive Committee. If the Executive Committee is unable to resolve the problem, the matter should be referred to General Faculties Council.

For information on the GFC ad hoc Committee on Service Courses, see 37.3.1.

* NOTE FROM THE UNIVERSITY SECRETARIAT: Faculties are asked to denote on their submissions those courses which are considered to be service courses.

E. Changes to Existing Undergraduate Programs

1. Faculty Councils shall approve program changes and submit them to the Secretary to GFC.

2. The Secretary to GFC shall then:

a. Circulate the changes in accordance with procedures governing course changes. Challenges should be lodged with the Secretary to GFC, who shall notify the Registrar and the Provost and Vice-President (Academic) of any challenge. Changes to existing programs may not be implemented until a challenge is resolved,

and,

b. Forward program changes to the Provost and Vice-President (Academic), who will discuss them with Deans of affected or interested Faculties and the Chair of the GFC Academic Standards Committee, where the Provost and Vice-President perceives this to be necessary or useful. (GFC 29 SEP 2003)

3. Any challenge to a program change arising from step 2(a) shall be coordinated by the Secretary to GFC, in consultation with the Provost and Vice-President (Academic), who together will ensure that Faculties are subject to only one negotiation procedure and approval route. (GFC 29 SEP 2003)

4. Any concerns of another Dean or Deans or of the Provost and Vice-President (Academic), arising from step 2(b), shall be discussed with the Dean of the originating Faculty, who may, if the Dean sees fit, recommend to his/her Faculty Council a revision of the changes.

a. If the proposed changes are not accepted by the Deans and the Provost and Vice-President (Academic) the changes, together with supporting and opposing statements, will be considered by APC and submitted to the Executive Committee of GFC, which shall hear representations from the Deans and/or the Provost and Vice-President (Academic), and shall then approve or reject the proposed changes.

b. Any Dean may appeal the decision of GFC Executive to GFC itself.

F. Faculty of Extension Courses and Programs: Approval Route (See also Section 12, 1, 3, 14)

1. GFC delegated to the Academic Standards Committee the authority to approve new non-credit programs and program expansions in the Faculty of Extension. Where additional funding and/or space is required, ASC would provide a recommendation on the proposed program to the GFC Academic Planning Committee (APC); APC, in turn, would have the GFC-delegated authority to give final approval for the overall program. (GFC 29 SEP 2003)

2. GFC delegated to the Provost and Vice-President (Academic) the authority (a) to approve new non-credit courses or major changes in the content or delivery of existing non-credit courses in the Faculty of Extension and (b) to receive and resolve challenges concerning these courses.

3. GFC delegated to the Academic Standards Committee the authority to make a decision on any challenge made to an Extension non-credit course which the Provost and Vice-President (Academic) has been unable to resolve. (GFC 30 MAR 1981) (GFC 29 SEP 2003)

4. Credit programs and courses in the Faculty of Extension will follow the normal route as outlined in Section 3 and Section 37.1.

G. Changes to Existing Graduate Programs

1. All proposed changes to existing graduate programs shall be submitted to the Dean of the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research (FGSR);

2. The Dean of FGSR shall assess the proposed changes and identify those deemed to be editorial or administrative and internal to the academic program of the unit submitting the change. These, if approved by the Dean, will be submitted directly to the GFC Secretary to be circulated to interested staff for information;

3. Changes which are deemed to be of a major nature, or minor changes which have potential impact on other units, shall be submitted to the Council of FGSR for ratification;

4. Minor Changes which are approved by the Council of FGSR shall be submitted to the Secretary of GFC for information. The GFC Secretary will circulate the changes to interested staff for information.

5. Major Changes which are approved by the Council of FGSR shall be forwarded to the Provost and Vice-President (Academic). The Provost and Vice-President (Academic) will assess the nature of the change and may approve proposals which have a clear and current precedent or analogue, involve no request for additional funds or space, and appear (after appropriate consultation) not to raise jurisdictional questions or larger issues of University-wide support.

Proposals which do not meet these criteria will be routed through the University's committee system by the Provost and Vice-President (Academic).

6. Minor Changes are those which do not change the basic nature and/or intent of the program. Major Changes are those which change the basic nature and/or intent of the program, or which result in a change or addition to the degree designations of the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research.

(See also Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, Section 63.)

H. Courses Recommended for Admission

The GFC Academic Standards Committee does not consider courses recommended for admission (as opposed to courses required for admission); these proposals instead will be submitted to the Secretary to GFC to be circulated for information only. (GFC 29 SEP 2003)

37.2 Course Numbering and Naming System

Course numbers which are deleted shall not be reused for a minimum of five years (ten years is preferred). This period of retirement is necessary to prevent confusion of the academic record by students, advisors, and those who refer to transcripts. (GFC 17 JUN 1996)

Faculties are discouraged from presenting proposals to renumber courses at the same number level (eg, from one 200-level number to another 200-level number) because of the confusion that this can create for students, academic records, advisors, departments, Faculties, administrative systems and transfer institutions. Strong academic reasons must be provided for such proposals. (GFC 17 JUN 1996)

Recommendations to renumber courses at the same level shall be proposed by the appropriate Faculty Council, circulated according to the procedures described in Section 37.1, and, in the absence of unresolved challenges, submitted to GFC Executive for ratification. Course renumbering to a different number level will normally be accomplished by deleting the current course and introducing a new course at the new level. (GFC 17 JUN 1996)

Course subject names shall designate broad areas of study (often an entire department) and shall not be used to designate numerous specializations. Faculty Councils shall endeavour to keep the number of subject names in the Faculty to an acceptable minimum. Subject names shall not be added or changed except for strong academic reasons. Changes made to subject names can create problems for students, other departments, other Faculties, administrative systems, and other institutions which are involved in transfer agreements with the University of Alberta. (GFC 17 JUN 1996)

New course subject names and their abbreviations shall be proposed by the appropriate Faculty Council, circulated according to the procedure described in Section 37.1, and, in the absence of unresolved challenges, submitted to GFC Executive for ratification. (GFC 17 JUN 1996)

The single designation of INT D shall be adopted for all interdisciplinary courses.

The following course number system shall be used for all new courses proposed after June 17, 1996:

000-099 Pre-University

100-199 Basic Undergraduate. Normally requires no university-level prerequisites. Designed typically for students in the First Year of a program.

200-299 Undergraduate. Prerequisites, if any, would normally be at the 100-level. Designed typically for students in the Second Year of a program.

300-399 Undergraduate. Prerequisites, if any, would normally be at the 200-level. Designed typically for students in the Third Year of a program.

400-499 Advanced Undergraduate. Prerequisites, if any, would normally be at the 300-level. Designated typically for students in the Fourth Year of a program.

500-599 Graduate. Designated for graduate students and certain advanced or honors undergraduate students in their final Year.

600-799 Graduate Courses.

800-899 Special Registrations

900-999 Graduate Thesis and Project Numbers

For the purposes of program descriptions and prerequisite designation, courses numbered 100-199 will be designated as Junior Courses and courses numbered 200-499 will be designated as Senior Courses. (GFC 17 JUN 1996)

Note: Some exceptions to the course number system described above have been granted to the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry. (GFC 17 JUN 1996)

Course titles should be as brief and general as possible. Care should be exercised to not recommend changes to existing titles which would suggest to a reader of the academic record that the course material has been substantially modified. In the case of a substantial modification of course content, a new course should be proposed. (GFC 17 JUN 1996)

37.3 Service Courses Policy

General Faculties Council reaffirms its present policy that basic courses applicable to other disciplines should be taught by the Department charged with responsibility for the basic discipline. (GFC 26 MAY 1975)

37.3.1

Since expertise and facilities in our university are organized according to departmental subdivisions, and since the duplication of staff and facilities is inefficient and impractical, General Faculties Council believes that Faculties can rightfully expect that properly qualified instructors from relevant Departments will teach service courses on request. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

37.3.2

Individual Faculties have the right to determine the programs of their students, subject only to General Faculties Council's approval. This right, to be meaningful, must be taken to mean that Faculties can, if they wish, define the objectives of service courses (although it is assumed that, rather than specify specialized variants, Faculties will use existing standard courses wherever possible). (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

37.3.3

Although Faculties have the right to determine course objectives, the means by which course objectives are to be attained must finally be the responsibility of the servicing Department, where subject matter expertise resides. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

37.3.4

Students at the University of Alberta must have access to all courses that form part of their program (as detailed in the University Calendar), and should not be discriminated against on the basis of their Faculty of registration. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

37.3.5

Historically, funding for Faculties has recognized the service teaching role. It is therefore incumbent on Faculties to see this role as part of their obligations. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

37.3.6

Given points (4) and (5) above, any attempt to limit enrolment on a discriminatory basis in courses that form part of the program of students outside the Faculty will not be permitted. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

37.3.7

At the same time, program changes in Faculties that have an impact on service burdens for other Faculties require discussion and agreement between Faculties. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

Faculties seeking changes to existing programs must consider and seek the agreement to any impact of the proposed program changes on the library system and on course enrolments in other academic units. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

Any new program proposal going forward for approval will require a service impact statement. Where the affected Faculties and/or Library are in agreement this statement will note that fact and details of the arrangement. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

Where there is disagreement, the Office of the Provost and Vice-President (Academic) will assist in mediation. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

37.3.8

In order to ensure fairness in allocation of funds, the Office of the Provost and Vice-President (Academic) will recognize not only enrolment targets as mandated under Section 50 of this Policy Manual but also undergraduate course registrations and graduate enrolment. (EXEC 09 SEP 2002)

37.4 Repeating of Courses

1. Students may not repeat any university course passed or courses for which they have received transfer credit except for reasons deemed sufficient, and verified in writing, by the Dean of the Faculty in which they are enrolled.

2. Only one re-registration for credit or audit will be permitted in any failed university course, except for reasons deemed sufficient by the Dean (or delegate) of the Faculty in which a student is enrolled.

3. Only one re-registration for credit or audit will be permitted in any university course in which a student has received a final grade of W, except for reasons deemed sufficient by the Dean (or delegate) of the Faculty in which a student is enrolled.

4. In cases where a student contravenes regulations 1., 2. or 3. above, the Dean (or delegate) may withhold credit or indicate the course as extra to the degree, on the course registration that contravenes the regulation.

5. Students may repeat a first-term course in the second term, if it is offered, as long as the student complies with regulations 1., 2. and 3. above.

6. An undergraduate student who, because of unsatisfactory academic performance is either required to withdraw, and/or required to repeat a year, and/or put on probation, will retain credit for courses in which grades of D or higher have been attained during the period for which the student's performance was evaluated as unsatisfactory. Notwithstanding this credit, Faculties may require substitution of other courses in programs in which full course loads are required. (EXEC 17 JUN 2002)

7. The Faculties of Law, Medicine, and Dentistry were granted exemption from the revision to Section 37.5.6 above, retroactive to April 11, 1983.

8. The Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences was granted exemption from item 6 above. (EXEC 13 NOV 1990)

9. The Faculty of Engineering was granted exemption from item 6 above, effective 2002-2003. (CAAST 16 MAY 2002)

NOTES:

1. The new policy takes effect September 1, 1988.

2. Withdrawals recorded on a student's record prior to September 1, 1988 would not be included in that re-registration count.

3. Students are responsible for monitoring the number of times they have repeated a course.

4. Withdrawals (W's) in a course will be considered together with failures (WF's or F's) when a Faculty is restricting the number of multiple registrations in a course.

Questions about this policy should be directed to the Registrar.

37.5 Course Flexibility

ADC Report on Greater Flexibility of Course Offerings at Undergraduate Level

In the course of discussions within the Academic Development Committee concerning the development of interdisciplinary studies at the University the question of flexibility of course offerings at the undergraduate level arose. It was suggested that there was a need felt among some students to have a greater selection of courses to make up their degree programs. These students did not want degrees made up of completely unrelated courses since in most cases a pattern or a direction would emerge from the courses they chose.

The Committee felt that the possibility should be looked at of finding new combinations of courses that would make meaningful patterns of study for students who wished to have a wider range of courses from which to choose.

In order to determine the existing degree of flexibility amongst Faculties and Departments in the offering of courses at the undergraduate level, the Academic Development Committee asked the Office of Institutional Research and Planning to carry out a study of this matter. The preliminary Report Describing Course Flexibility and Interdisciplinary Studies at the Undergraduate Level, dated November 1971 is available in the Office of the Secretary. The general conclusion of the Preliminary Report is that students' freedom to take options outside the Faculty in which they are registered varies widely depending on the Faculty with which the students are affiliated and the degree program in which students are enrolled, as follows:

1. in some professional Faculties the programs are structured to educate students for relatively specific occupations. Their programs, therefore, tend to have a high proportion of required courses and in some of these Faculties there are few options;

2. in the Faculties of Arts and Science the student has greater freedom in designing a program, but must normally restrict choices to the offerings in these two Faculties. Honors programs which are designed to provide depth in a non-applied area, indirectly limit the number of options by requiring many courses in the area of specialization;

3. faculties in which the educational goals combine applied and basic education allow the greatest flexibility, since students have considerable freedom to choose options of both types.

Having considered the Preliminary Report, the Academic Development Committee has concluded:

1. that flexibility of course programming is the first step to interdisciplinary studies;

2. that restrictive regulations should be relaxed where possible in order to enable students to choose more freely from the course offerings of various Faculties.

The Academic Development Committee therefore recommends:

1. that Departments be asked to re-examine the number of required courses their students must have in their major field of study before the Department would approve the program as, for example, a degree in Physics or a degree in History;

2. that Departments be asked to re-examine their total programs, with particular emphasis on prerequisites and other restrictions to enrolment, whether or not they are actually legislated;

3. that the Faculties of Arts and Science be asked to re-examine the reasons for the restrictions in allowing credit for courses taken in other Faculties, with a view to easing the restrictions;

4. that in order to make more options available in practice, provision be made in university scheduling to make this possible;

5. that Faculties be encouraged to provide adequate counselling to assist students in the selection of courses or programs best designed to meet their interests;

6. that Faculties be prepared to inform the Academic Development Committee as to their progress in implementing the recommendations of the Committee.

37.6 Withdrawal from Courses (effective 1999-2000)

Students may not officially withdraw from a course after the Withdrawal Deadline. All students registered in a course after the Withdrawal Deadline will be assigned a final grade by the instructor, based on course work completed.

Faculties shall have discretionary authority to waive withdrawal deadlines for their own students in exceptional circumstances such as illness or domestic affliction.

37.7 Prerequisite and and Corequisite Course Requirements

For admission to a course with a prerequisite requirement, the minimum grade which must be obtained in the prerequisite course shall be a D. (GFC 28 JUN 1976) (EXEC 05 OCT 1976) (EXEC 16 OCT 1981) (EXEC 17 JUN 2002)

The new policy with respect to a grade of D in a prerequisite course shall take effect in the 1977-78 Academic Year and shall affect students entering the senior course.

37.7.1 Prerequisite Course Requirements

Students registering in courses for which a prerequisite is listed must meet the prerequisite requirements. A grade of D is the minimum grade acceptable in a course which is to be used as a prerequisite. Departments may cancel the registrations of students in courses offered by the Departments who do not meet the prerequisite requirements as stated in the course descriptions in this calendar.

Degree credit may be withheld for courses with prerequisite requirements if the prerequisite requirements have not been met or have not been waived in writing.

Where a prerequisite is stated, it is understood that equivalent courses may be used to satisfy the requirement. In addition, the prerequisite requirements may be waived with the written approval of the Department that offers the course.

Students who are unsure that they meet the prerequisite requirements in a course, or who wish to obtain permission to have a prerequisite waived, should consult the Department offering the course. (EXEC 03 OCT 1988)

37.7.2 Corequisite Course Requirements

Students registering in courses for which a corequisite is listed must also register in the corequisite course or have previously passed the corequisite course with a minimum grade of D. Departments may cancel the registrations of students in courses offered by the departments who do not meet the corequisite requirements as stated in the course description of this calendar. Degree credit may be withheld for courses with corequisite requirements if the corequisite requirements have not been met or have not been waived in writing.

Where a corequisite is stated, it is understood that equivalent courses may be used to satisfy the requirements. In addition, the corequisite requirements may be waived with the written approval of the Department that offers the course.

Students who are unsure that they meet the corequisite requirements in a course, or who wish to obtain permission to have a corequisite waived, should consult the department offering the course.

Courses with corequisite requirements may only be used for degree credit if the corequisite requirements have been met or waived in writing. A grade of D is the minimum grade acceptable in a course used as a corequisite.

37.8 Quotas on Courses

See Enrolment Management, see Section 50.

See Course Weight - see Section 61.

37.9 Course Weighting

Note: Course description symbols and figures are given in the Calendar in the Course Listings section.

37.9.1 General

In the normal case, courses will be weighted in terms of their hours of instructional delivery. A course which consists of three hours per week of lectures or stand-alone seminars for one term of Winter Session (eg, 3-0-0 or 0-3s-0) shall be weighted as three units of course weight (i3). Except for courses offered by the Faculty of Engineering additional laboratory hours will not increase this weight (eg, 3-0-3 is also i3).

In the general case, then, one unit of course weight is assigned for each weekly hour of lecture or stand-alone seminar instruction for the entire term.



Full-Session courses are weighted as the sum of the weights for each term. Hence 3-0-0 for a full Winter Session received six units of course weight (i6).

A normal laboratory course with no separate lectures or seminars will receive one-half unit of course weight for each hour of instruction per week for the entire term (eg, 0-0-6 for one term would receive 3 units of course weight, or i3),

Other courses have a variety of types and hours of instructional delivery. In proposing such courses, Faculties shall seek advice from the Registrar who shall maintain a protocol of course weight calculation based upon total hours of instruction.

Some courses are offered for credit only and may carry a weight of i0.

The weight for a given course shall always been the same regardless of the Faculty, program or year in which it is taken.

A number representing this weight shall be included in the Calendar.

37.9.2 Faculty of Science

A full session course (or full course equivalent) means a single course with a course weight of 6 or two or more courses whose combined weights are 6. A half session course means a single course with a course weight of 3 or two or more courses whose combined weights are 3. Please note - There are certain courses with weights of 1, 2 and 4; these courses are considered as one-sixth, one-third and two-thirds of a full session course respectively. For courses taken in Engineering, the course weight is designated by the i symbol. (See Section 192.8 of the Calendar.)

Following the title of the course is the symbol "i" standing for "course weight", and a number indicating the weight of the course as used in computing grade point averages and for meeting degree requirements. A full session course is weighted 6; a half session course is weighted 3. There are certain courses, offered over the full session or in a half session, with weights of 1, 2 and 4. These courses are considered as one-sixth, one-third and two-thirds of a full session course respectively. Some honors and graduate courses involving research may vary in weight according to the length and difficulty of the project. Some courses are offered for credit only, and carry a weight of 0. (See Section 194.1 of the Calendar.)

37.10 Course Syllabus and Calendar: Publication of Incidental Fees

The University of Alberta's policies and procedures governing incidental fees are on line in the University of Alberta Policies and Procedures On line (UAPPOL). (BD OF GOV 23 JUN 2006)

(GFC 30 JAN 1961)

(EXEC 16 OCT 1981) 

(GFC 02 JUN 1966) (GFC 02 DEC 1982)

(EXEC 10 NOV 1966)

(GFC 26 NOV 1984)

(GFC 14 JUN 1971)

(EXEC 06 MAY 1985)

(GFC 27 SEP 1971)

(EXEC 08 JUL 1985)

(EXEC 01 NOV 1971)

(EXEC 10 MAR 1986)

(GFC 28 FEB 1972)

(EXEC 04 MAY 1987)

(GFC 24 APR 1972)

(EXEC 19 OCT 1987)

(GFC 26 JUN 1972)

(EXEC 08 FEB 1988)

(GFC 29 JAN 1973)

(EXEC 03 OCT 1988)

(EXEC 07 JAN 1974)

(EXEC 06 MAR 1989)

(EXEC 20 JAN 1975)

(EXEC 13 NOV 1990)

(GFC 31 MAR 1975)

(EXEC 07 OCT 1991)

(GFC 26 MAY 1975)

(EXEC 09 DEC 1991)

(GFC 23 JUN 1975)

(GFC 17 JUN 1996)

(GFC 28 JUN 1976)

(GFC 15 JUN 1998)

(EXEC 05 OCT 1976)

(GFC 21 JUN 1999)

(GFC 29 NOV 1976)

(EXEC 30 AUG 1999)

(GFC 31 JAN 1977)

(CAAST 16 MAY 2002)

(GFC 29 MAY 1978)

(EXEC 17 JUN 2002)

(EXEC 15 SEP 1980)

(EXEC 09 SEPT 2002)

(EXEC 03 NOV 1980)

(GFC 29 SEPT 2003)

  (BG 23 JUN 2006)